Organizational and management research publications on humor

This quick post is perhaps not as interesting nor exciting as most of the posts on this blog are (at least I hope they are). It is, to put it bluntly, a list over publications related to studies of humor in the organizational and management context: it function for the work environment, team dynamics, performance, motivation, in leading people, etc., etc.

A bibliography.

by papetrix, 2005 (CC BY-NC 2.0)

by papetrix, 2005 (CC BY-NC 2.0)

 

This bibliography is a result of putting together resources used by a group of humor scholars particularly interested in the topic of organizational/management studies. This group, which I’m a proud member of, was formed for the occasion of the International Society of Humor Studies conference held in Utrecht earlier this year. Others are: Henri M. de Jongste (Fachhochschule Dortmund, Germany), Barbara Plester (University of Auckland, New Zeland), Brett Mills (University of East Anglia, UK), and Sibe Doosje (University of Utrecht, the Netherlands). The group is informal and all but exclusive, so feel free to contact me to join!

Although sometimes when one writes about humor the ‘bibliography’ looks a little like the one on the picture above, you will be surprised how many relevant publications is there about humor in the organizational settings. Enjoy and I do hope it’ll be of use to many of you, dear readers:

 

 

Abel, M. H. (2002). Humor, stress, and coping strategies. Humor, 15(4), 365-381.

Ackroyd, S., & Thompson, P. (1999). Organizational misbehaviour. Sage.

Adamle, K. N., & Ludwick, R. (2005). Humor in hospice care: Who, where, and how much? American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, 22(4), 287-290.

Aldag, R., & Sherony, K. (2001). A spoonful of sugar: Some thoughts on “fun at work”. Contemporary Issues in Management, 1(1): 62-76.

Alden, D. L., Mukherjee, A., & Hoyer, W. D. (2000). The effects of incongruity, surprise and positive moderators on perceived humor in television advertising. Journal of Advertising, 29(2), 1-15.

Allen, M. W., Reid, M. & Riemenschneider, C. (2004). The role of laughter when discussing workplace barriers: Women in Information Technology jobs. Sex Roles, 50(3/4), 177 -190.

Avolio, B. J., Howell, J. M., & Sosik, J. T. (1999). A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Bottom Line: Humor as a Moderator of Leadership Style Effects. The Academy of Management Journal, 42(2), 219-227. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/257094

Åstedt-Kurki, P., & Isola, A. (2001). Humour between nurse and patient, and among staff: Analysis of nurses’ diaries. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 35(3), 452-458.

Baldry, C. & Hallier, J. (2010). Welcome to the house of fun: Work space and social identity. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 31(1):150-172.

Baron, R. A. (1984). Reducing organizational conflict: An incompatible response approach. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69(2), 272-279.

Barsoux, J. (1993). Funny Business: Humour, management and business culture. London: Cassell.

Barsoux, J.-L. (1996). Why Organisations Need Humour. European Management Journal, 14, 500-508.

Baptiste, N.R. (2009). Fun and well-being: insights from senior managers in a local authority. Employee Relations, 31(6): 600-613.

Berk, R. (2009). Derogatory and cynical humour in clinical teaching and the workplace: The need for professionalism. Medical Education, 43(1), 7-9.

Blythe, M., & Hassenzahl, M. (2003). The semantics of fun: Differentiating enjoyable experiences, in      Funology: From usability to enjoyment, edited by M.A. Blythe, A.F. Monk, K. Overbeeke, &

P.C. Wright. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers: 91-100.

Blumenfeld, E., & Alpern, L. (1994). Humor at work: The guaranteed, bottom-line, low-cost, high-efficiency guide to success through humor. Atlanta (GE, USA): Peachtree Publishers.

Bolton, S. C. & Houlihan, M. (2009). Are we having fun yet? A consideration of workplace fun and engagement. Employee Relations, 31(6): 556-568.

Boxer, D. & Cortes-Conde, F. (1997). From binding to biting: Conversational joking and identity display. Journal of Pragmatics, 27(3): 275-294.

Bradney, P. (1957). The joking relationship in industry. Human Relations, 10, 179 -­187

Burawoy, R. (1979). Manufacturing consent. Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Buijzen, M., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2009). Developing a Typology of Humor in Audiovisual Media. Developing a Typology of Humor in Audiovisual Media, 6(2), 147-167. doi:10.1207/s1532785xmep0602_2

Butler, N. (2013). Joking aside: Theorizing laughter in organizations. Culture and organization, DOI: 10.1080/14759551.2013.79916

Chattopadhyay, A., & Basu, K. (1990). Humor in Advertising: The Moderating Role of Prior Brand Evaluation. Journal of Marketing Research, 27(4), 466-476.

Clouse, R., & Spurgeon, K. (1995). Corporate analysis of humour. Psychology, 32, 1­24.

Collinson, D. L. (1988). ‘“Engineering humour”: masculinity, joking and conflict in shop-floor relations’. Organization Studies9(2), 181-199.

Collinson, D. L. (1992). Managing the shopfloor: Subjectivity, masculinity and workplace culture (Vol. 36). Walter de Gruyter.

Collinson, D. L. (2002). Managing humour. Journal of Management Studies, 39(3): 269­ -289.

Collinson, M., & Collinson, D. (1996). ‘“It’s only dick”: The sexual harassment of women managers in insurance sales’. Work, Employment & Society10(1), 29-56.

Cooper, C. (2005). Just joking around? Employee humor expression as an ingratiatory behaviour. The Academy of Management Review, 30(4): 765-776

Cooper, C. (2008). Elucidating the bonds of workplace humor: A relational process model. Human Relations, 61(8): 1087-1115.

Coser, R. L. (1959). Some social functions of laughter.  A study of humor in a hospital setting. Human Relations, 12: 171­ -181.

Costea, B., Crump, N., & Holm, J. (2005). Dionysus at work? The ethos of play and the ethos of management. Culture and Organisation, 11(2), 139 ­-151.

Cox, J. A., Read, R. L., & Van Auken, P. M. (1990). Male-female differences in communicating job-related humor: An exploratory study. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 3(3), 287-295.

Dandridge, T. C. (1986). Ceremony as an integration of work and play. Organisation Studies, 7(2), 159 -­170.

Daniels, K., Beesley, N., Cheyne, A., & Wimalasiri, V. (2008). Coping processes linking the demands-control-support model, affect and risky decisions at work. Human Relations, 61(6), 845-874.

Dean, R. A., & Major, J. E. (2008). From critical care to comfort care: The sustaning value of humour. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17, 1088-1095.

Dean, R. A. K., & Gregory, D. M. (2005). More than trivial: Strategies for using humor in palliative care. Cancer Nursing, 28(4), 292-300.

Decker, W. H. (1987). Managerial Humor and Subordinate Satisfaction. Social Behavior and Personality, 15(2), 225-232.

Decker, W. H., & Rotondo, D. M. (1999). Use of humor at work: Predictors and implications. Psychological Reports, 84(2), 961-968.

Decker, W. H., Yao, H., & Calo, T. J. (2011). Humor, Gender, and Perceived Leader Effectiveness in China. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 43-53.

Dikkers, J., Doosje, S., & De Lange, A. (2012). Humor as a human resource tool in organizations. In J. Houdmont, S. Leka & R. Sinclair (Eds.), Contemporary occupational health psychology: Global perspectives on research and practice (pp. 74-91). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

Doosje, S. (2010). Sense of humor at work: Assessment and associations with health. Unpublished Ph.D., Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Doosje, S., De Goede, M. P. M., Van Doornen, L. P. J., & Goldstein, J. H. (2010). Measurement of occupational humorous coping. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 23(3), 275-305.

Duncan, J. W. (1982). Humor in management: Prospects for administrative practice and research. Academy of Management Review, 7(1), 136 -­142.

Duncan, J. W., & Feisal, J. P. (1989). No Laughin Matter: Pattern of Humor in The Workplace. Organizational Dynamics, 18-30.

Duncan, J. W., Smeltzer, L. R., & Leap, T. L. (1990). Humor and Work: Applications of joking behaviour to management. Journal of Management, 16(2), 255 ­-279.

Dwyer, T. (1991). Humor, power, and change in organisations. Human Relations, 44(1), 1­19.

Easton, A. (1994). Talk and laughter in New Zealand women’s and men’s speech. Wellington Working Papers in Linguistics, 6, 1­25.

Eisend, M. (2008). A meta-analysis of humor in advertising. Academy of Marketing Science(37), 191-203. doi:10.1007/s11747-008-0096-y

Fagan, P., & Schaffer, M. (1993). The office humour book. New York (NY, USA): Harper Collins.

Fahlman, C. (1997). Laughing nine to five: The quest for humor in the workplace. Portland (OR, USA): Steelhead Press.

Fatt, J. P. T. (2002). When business can be fun. Management Research News, 25(1), 39 ­48.

Fleming, P. (2005). Worker’s playtime? Boundaries and cynicism in a ‘Culture of fun’ program. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 41(3), 285­ -303.

Fine, G. A., & De Soucey, M. (2005). Joking Cultures: Humor Themes as Social Regulation in Group Life. Humor. International Journal of Humor Research, 18(1): 1- ­22.

Firth, D., & Leigh, A. (2001). The corporate fool. Hoboken (NJ, USA): John Wiley and Sons.

Fluegge, E.R. (2008). Who put the fun in functional? Fun at work and its effects on job performance. Unpublished PhD, University of Florida, Florida.

Ford, R. C., Newstrom, J. W., & McLaughlin, F. S. (2004). Making workplace fun more functional. Industrial and Commercial Training, 36(3), 117-120.

Ford, R. C., McLaughlin, F. S., & Newstrom, J. W. 2003. Questions and answers about fun at work. Human Resource Planning, 26(4): 18-33.

Goodman, J. (1995). Laffirmations: 1001 ways to add humor to your life and work. Deerfield Beach (FL, USA): Health Communications.

Greatbatch, D., & Clark, T. (2002). Laughing with the gurus. Business Strategy Review, 13(3), 10-18.

Gropper, C., & Kleiner, B. H. (1992). Making work play. Work Study, 41(7): 14-16.

Grugulis, I. (2002). Nothing serious? Candidates’ use of humour in management training. Human Relations, 55(4), 387-406.

Gruner, C. R. (1997). The game of humor. A Comprehensive theory of why we laugh. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.

Hatch, M. J. & Ehrlich, S. B. (1993). Spontaneous humour as an indicator of paradox and ambiguity in organisations. Organisation Studies, 14(4), 505 ­-526.

Hay, J. (1994). Jocular abuse patterns in mixed-group interaction. Wellington Working Papers in Linguistics, 6, 26­ -55. doi:10.1177/017084069301400403

Hay, J. (2000). Functions of humor in the conversations of men and women. Journal of Pragmatics, 32(6), 709 -742.

Hemsath, D., & Yerkes, L. (1997). 301 ways to have fun at work. San Francisco (CAL, USA): Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Holmes, J. (2000). Politeness, power and provocation: How humour functions in the workplace. Discourse studies, 2(2): 159 ­-185.

Holmes, J. (2007). Humour and the construction of Maori leadership at work. Leadership, 3(1), 5­27.

Holmes, J. (2006). Sharing a laugh: Pragmatic aspects of humor and gender in the workplace. Journal of Pragmatics, 38, 26-50.

Holmes, J., & Marra, M. (2002a). Having a laugh at work: How humour contributes to workplace culture. Journal of Pragmatics, 34(12), 1683 -­1710.

Holmes, J., & Marra, M. (2002b). Over the edge? Subversive humor between colleagues and friends. Humor, 15(1), 65-87.

Holmes, J., & Marra, M. & Burns, L. (2001). Women’s humour in the workplace. A quantitative analysis. Australian Journal of Communication, 28(1), 83 -­108.

Holmes, J., Burns, L., Marra, M., Stubbe, M., & Vine, B. (2003). Women managing discourse in the workplace. Women in Management Review, 18(8), 414-424.

Holmes, J., & Stubbe, M. (2003). Power and politeness in the workplace: A sociolinguistic analysis of talk at work. London: Longman.

Hosie, P., Sevastos, P., & Cooper, C.L. (2006). Happy performing managers: The impact of affective wellbeing and intrinsic job satisfaction in the workplace. Northhampton, MA: Edward Elgar.

Hudson, K. M. (2001). Transforming a conservative company: One laugh at a time. Harvard Business Review, 79(7), 45-53.

Iapoce, M. (1988). A funny thing happened on the way to the boardroom: Using humor in business speaking. New York (NY, USA): John Wiley and Sons.

Johnston, A., Mumby, D., & Westwood, R. (2007). Representing the unrepresentable. Gender, humour and organisation. In R. Westwood & C. Rhodes (Eds.), Humour, work and organisation, pp. 113 -­138. London: Routledge.

Kahn, W. A. (1989). Toward a Sense of Organizational Humor: Implications for Organizational Diagnosis and Change. The Journal of Behavioral Science, 25(1), 45-63. doi:0.1177/0021886389251004

Karl, K., & Peluchette, J. (2006a). How does workplace fun influence employee perceptions of customer service quality? Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 13(2): 2-13.

Karl, K. & Peluchette, J. (2006b). Does Workplace Fun Buffer the Impact of Emotional

Exhaustion on Job Dissatisfaction?: A Study of Health Care Workers, Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, 7 (2): 128-141.

Karl, K., Peluchette, J., Hall, L. & Harland L. (2005). Attitudes toward workplace fun: A three sector comparison. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 12(2): 1-17.

Karl, K. & Peluchette, J. V. & Hall, L.M. (2008). Give them something to smile about: A marketing

strategy for recruiting and retaining volunteers. Journal of Non-profit & Public Sector Marketing, 20: 91-96.

Kerkkänen, P., Kuiper, N. A., & Martin, R. A. (2004). Sense of humor, physical health, and well-being at work: A three-year longitudinal study of finnish police officers. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 17(1-2), 21-35.

Kets de Vries, M. F. R. (1990). The organisational fool: Balancing a leader’s hubris. Human Relations, 43(8), 751­ -770.

Lamm, E. & Meeks, M.D. (2009). Workplace fun: The moderating effects of generational differences. Employee Relations, 31(6): 613-631.

Lange, R., & Houran, J. (2009). Perceived importance of employees’ traits in the service industry. Psychological Reports, 104, 567-578.

Linstead, S. (1985). Jokers wild: The importance of humour in the maintenance of organisational culture. Sociological Review, 13(3), 741 ­-767.

Ludden, G. D., Kudrowitz, B. M., Schifferstein, H. N., & Hekkert, P. (2012). Surprise and humor in product design. Designing sensory metaphors in multiple modalities. Humor, 25(3), 285-309. doi:10.1515/humor-2012-0015

Lundquist, L. (2014). Danish humor in cross-cultural professional settings: linguistic and social aspects. Humor, 27(1), 141-161. doi: 10.1515/humor-2013-0044

Lyttle, J. (2007). The judicious use and management of humor in the workplae. Business Horizons, 50, 239-245. doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2006.11.001

McDowell, T. (2004). Fun at work: Scale development, confirmatory factor analysis, and links toorganizational outcomes. Unpublished PhD, California School of Organizational Studies, San Diego.

Malone, P. B. (1980). Humor: A double-edged tool for today’s managers? Academy of Management Review, 5(3), 357 -­361.

Markiewicz, D. (1974). Effects of Humor on Persuasion. Sociometry, 37(3), 407-422.

McCreaddie, M., & Wiggins, S. (2008). The purpose and function of humour in health, health care and nursing: A narrative review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 61(6), 584-595. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04548.x

McIlheran, J. (2006). The use of humor in corporate communication. Corporate Communcations: An International Journal, 11(3), 267-274.

Mesmer, P. J. (2000). Use of humor as a stress coping strategy by para-professional youth care workers employed in residential group care facilities. University of South Florida).

Meyer, J. C. (1997). Humor in Member Narratives: Uniting and Dividing at Work. Western Journal of Communication, 61(2), 188-208.

Miller, J. (1996). Humour: An empowerment tool for the 1990s. Management Development Review, 9(6), 36-40.

Moran, C. C., & Massam, M. (1997). An evaluation of humour in emergency work. Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies, 1(3), 36-42.

Morreall, J. (1997). Humor works. Amherst (MA, USA): Human Resource Development Press.

Morreall, J. (1991). Humor and work. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 4(3-4), 359-373.

Newstrom, J. W. (2002). Making work fun: An important role for managers. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 67(1): 4-10.

Neves, P. (2012). How much is a laugh worth? The preventive value of workgroup humor for ostracism and retaliation. 2012 Academy of Management Annual meeting.

Owler, K., Morrison, R. & Plester, B. (2010). Does fun work? The complexity of promoting fun at work. Journal of Management and Organization, 16(3): 338-352.

Parker, M. (2007). The little book of management bollocks: Kitsch artefacts. In R. Westwood& C. Rhodes (Eds.), Humour, work and organisation, 77 -­91. London: Routledge.

Paulson, T. L. (1989). Making humor work: Take your job seriously and yourself lightly (fifty-minute series). Misssissauga (ONT, CAN): Crisp Learning.

Peluchette, J., & Karl, K. A. (2005). Attitudes toward incorporating fun into the health care workplace. The Health Care Manager, 24(3), 268 -275.

Plester, B.A. (2009a). Crossing the line: Boundaries of workplace humour and fun. Employee Relations, 31(6): 584-599.

Plester, B.A. (2009b). Healthy humour: Using humour to cope at work. Kotuitui: New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online, 2009, Vol. 4: abc–xyz 1177–083X/09/0401–00 © The Royal Society of New Zealand 2009.

Plester, B. A., Cooper-Thomas, H.  & Winquist, J. (2014). The fun paradox. Employee Relations (forthcoming).

Plester, B. & Hutchison, A. (2012). Fun times: The relationship between fun and engagement. Paper presented at HRINZ Research Forum, Auckland, New Zealand, 15 Nov, 2012.

Plester, B. A. & Orams, M. B. (2008). Send in the clowns: The role of the joker in three New Zealand IT companies. Humor. International Journal of Humour Research, 21(3): 253-281.

Plester, B.A., & Sayers, J. G. (2007). “Taking the piss”: The functions of banter in three IT companies.  Humor. International Journal of Humor Research, 20(2): 157 ­-187.

Priest, R. F., & Swain, J. E. (2002). Humor and its implications for leadership effectiveness. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 15(2), 169-189.

Pullen, A. & Rhodes, C. (2013). Parody, subversion and the politics of gender at work: the case of Futurama’s ‘Raging Bender’. Organization, 20(4): 512-533.

Redman, T., & Mathews, B. P. (2002). Managing services: Should we be having fun? The Services Industries Journal, 22(3), 51 -62.

Rhodes, C. (2001). The Simpsons, Popular culture, and the organizational carnival. Journal of Management Inquiry, 10, (4): 374-383.

Rockman, I. F. (2003). Fun in the workplace. Reference Services Review, 31(2), 109-110.

Rodrigues, S. B., & Collinson, D. L. (1995). ‘Having fun’? Humour as resistance in Brazil. Organisation Studies, 16(5), 739 ­-768.

 

Rogerson-Revell, P. (2007). Humour in business: A double-edged sword. A study of humour and style shifting in intercultural business meetings. Journal of Pragmatics, 39, 4-28. doi:10.1016/j.pragma.2006.09.005

Romero, E., & Pescosolido, A. (2008). Humor and group effectiveness. Human Relations, 61(3), 395-418. doi:10.1177/0018726708088999

Roy, D. (1959). ‘Banana Time’: Job satisfaction and informal interaction. Human Organisation Studies, 18, 158 -­168.

Schnurr, S., & Chan, A. (2011). When laughter is not enough. Responding to teasing and self-denigrating humour at work. Journal of Pragmatics(43), 20-35. doi:10.1016/j.pragma.2010.09.001

Schnurr, S., & Rowe, C. (2008). The “Dark Side of Humour. An Analysis of Subversive Humour in Workplace Emails. Lodz Papers in Pragmatics / Special Issue on Humour, 4(1), 109-130. doi:10.2478/v10016-008-0010-6

Schwab, P. (2005). Leave a mark, not a stain! what every manager needs to know about using humor in the workplace. Seattle: Rollingwood Press. Scott, T. (2007).

Expression of humour by emergency personnel involved in sudden deathwork. Mortality, 12(4), 350-364.

Shulman-Green, D. (2003). Coping mechanisms of physicians who routinely work with dying patients. OMEGA–Journal of Death and Dying, 47(3), 253-264.

Smith, C. M., & Noviello, S. R. (2012). Humor in the classroom using faculty skits. Nurse Educator, 37(5), 198-201. doi:10.1097/NNE.0b013e318262eabf

Stromberg, S. & Karlsson, J.C. (2009). Rituals of fun and mischief: the case of the Swedish meatpackers. Employee Relations,31(6): 632-647

Talbot, L. A. (2000). Burnout and humor usage among community college nursing faculty members. Community College Journal of Research & Practice, 24(5), 359-373. doi:10.1080/106689200263962

Tamblyn, D., & Weiss, S. (2000). The big book of humorous training games. New York, etc.: McGraw-Hill.

Taylor, P., & Bain, P. (2003). ‘Subterranean worksick blues’: Humour as subversion in two call centres. Organisation Studies, 24(9): 1487 -­1509.

Terrion, J. L., & Ashforth, B. E. (2002). From ‘I’ to ‘we’: The role of putdown humor and identity in the development of a temporary group. Human Relations, 55(1): 55­ -87.

Tews, M.J., Michel, J.W., & Bartlett, A. (2012). The Fundamental role of workplace fun in applicant attraction. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 19(1): 105-114.

Tews, M.J., Michel, J.W., & Stafford. (2013). Does fun pay? The impact of workplace fun on employee turnover and performance. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly,54(4): 370-382.

Tracy, S.J.,  Myers, K.K. & Scott, W. (2006) Cracking jokes and crafting selves: Sensemaking and identity management among human service workers. Communication Monographs, 73(3): 283-308.

Tyler, M., & Cohen, L. (2008). ‘Management in/as comic relief: Queer theory and gender performativity in The Office’. Gender, Work & Organization15(2), 113-132.

Van Wormer, K., & Boes, M. (1997). Humor in the emergency room: A social work perspective. Health and Social Work, 22(2), 87-92. Retrieved from SCOPUS database.

Vecchio, R. P., Justin, J. E., & Pearce, C. L. (2009). The Influence of Leader Humor on Relationships between Leader Behavior and Follower Outcomes. Journal of Menagerial Issues, 21(2), 171-194.

Vitug, M., & Kleiner, B. (2007). How can comedy be used in business? International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 56(2), 155-161.

Warren, S., & Fineman, S. (2007a). ‘Don’t get me wrong, it’s fun here, but…’ Ambivalence and paradox in a ‘fun’ work environment, in Humour, work and organisation, edited by R. Westwood & C. Rhodes. London: Routledge: 92­ -112.

Weaver, S. T., & Wilson, C. N. (1997). Addiction counselors can benefit from appropriate humor in the work setting. Journal of Employment Counseling, 34(3), 108-114.

Weinberger, M. G., & Campbell, L. (1990). The use and impact of humor in radio advertising. Journal of Advertising Research, 30(6), 44-52.

Weinberger, M. G., & Gulas, C. S. (1992). The impact of humor in advertising: A review. Journal of Advertising, 21(4), 35-59.

Weinberger, M. G., Spotts, H. E., Campbell, L., & Parsons, A. L. (1995). The use and effect of humor in different advertising media. Journal of Advertising Research, 35(3), 44-56.

Weinstein, M. (1997). Managing to have fun. New York (NY, USA): Simon & Schuster.

Westwood, R. (2004). Comic relief: Subversion and catharsis in organisational comic theatre. Organisation Studies, 25(5), 775 -­795.

Westwood, R. & Rhodes, C. (Eds.). (2007). Humour, work and organisation. London: Routledge.

Whiteley, R., & Hessan, D. (1997). Don’t take life – or business – too seriously! Managing Service Quality, 7(3), 117-121.

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